Challenges of diagnosing fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in foster and adopted children.

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Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.), ISSN: 1873-6823, Vol: 67, Page: 37-43

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Bakhireva, Ludmila N; Garrison, Laura; Shrestha, Shikhar; Sharkis, Janet; Miranda, Rajesh; Rogers, Karen
Elsevier BV
Social Sciences; Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology; Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics; Neuroscience
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article description
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) might be 10-15 times more prevalent among foster/adopted children compared to the general population; however, many of these children remain undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. The lack of confirmed prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) may be a key barrier to diagnosis. Our sample included 681 patients evaluated for FASD, according to the University of Washington 4-Digit Diagnostic Code, at a pediatric specialty clinic. Guardianship status and other patient characteristics were evaluated by multinomial logistic regression as potential predictors of being classified into one of the following FASD groups: 1) full or partial Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS/pFAS; n = 97); 2) Static Encephalopathy/Alcohol-Exposed (SE/AE) or Neurobehavioral Disorder/Alcohol-Exposed (ND/AE) (n = 135); and 3) some features of FASD (equivalent to pFAS, SE/AE or ND/AE phenotypes) but unknown PAE (n = 449). Median age at assessment was 7.0 years, non-Hispanic White constituted the predominant racial/ethnic group (49.5%), and the majority (81.8%) lacked involvement from a biological parent/relative. Many patients (66.0%) had some features of FASD but lacked reliable PAE information. Children classified into the 'some features/unknown PAE' group had higher median age of assessment (8 years) compared to other groups (6 years; p < 0.001). No association was observed between race/ethnicity or child's sex and FASD outcomes (p > 0.05). Adopted/foster children were 2.8 times as likely (95% CI: 1.6; 4.8) to be classified into the 'some features/unknown PAE' group compared to children living with a parent/relative after adjusting for covariates. This study's findings indicate that adopted/foster children are more likely to have unknown PAE and not receive a FASD diagnosis, potentially denying them access to specialized services, treatment, and rehabilitation.