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We introduce an explicit indicator and the Land Use Management Support System to assess the resource-use efficiency of land use (RUE) at the landscape scale. To estimate RUE, we relate land-use performance with regard to ecosystem services indicators to the maximum possible land-use performance based on an optimised land-use configuration. The test application of the RUE assessment in the Haean catchment, South Korea, shows that the land-use system's RUE could be increased by 11% for both nitrate and sediment loss. The estimated headroom could indicate whether potential contaminant reduction targets for the downstream water reservoir Lake Soyang could be achieved with the current land-use system. The recurring RUE assessment for a given region might indicate the effectiveness of spatial planning and policy measures to improve the RUE in that region. Future work should address the integration of RUE into a participatory spatial planning or resource-management framework.