Direct conversion of glucose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural using a mixture of niobic acid and niobium phosphate as a solid acid catalyst
- Citation data:
Fuel, ISSN: 0016-2361, Vol: 210, Page: 67-74
- Publication Year:
- Chemical Engineering; Energy; Chemistry
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The aim of this work was to optimize the acid-catalyzed conversion of glucose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in an aqueous medium using niobic acid (NbO), niobium phosphate (NbP) and a mixture of both solid acid catalysts. A simplex-centroid mixture design was applied to optimize the mixture ratio between NbO and NbP. A central composite design was applied to process optimization. The studied variables were temperature (T), time (t) and substrate to catalyst weight ratio (R S/C ). The mixture design revealed excellent glucose conversion (55%) and HMF selectivity (56%) when the weight ratio between NbO and NbP was equal to 1:1. The experimental results demonstrate that a mixture of both solid acids provides a better combination of Brønsted and Lewis acidity for effective glucose dehydration into HMF than each individual catalyst.