Zirconium oxide nanotube–Nafion composite as high performance membrane for all vanadium redox flow battery

Citation data:

Journal of Power Sources, ISSN: 0378-7753, Vol: 337, Page: 36-44

Publication Year:
2017
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DOI:
10.1016/j.jpowsour.2016.10.113
Author(s):
Md. Abdul Aziz; Sangaraju Shanmugam
Publisher(s):
Elsevier BV
Tags:
Energy; Chemistry; Engineering
article description
A high-performance composite membrane for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) consisting of ZrO 2 nanotubes (ZrNT) and perfluorosulfonic acid (Nafion) was fabricated. The VRB operated with a composite (Nafion-ZrNT) membrane showed the improved ion-selectivity (ratio of proton conductivity to permeability), low self-discharge rate, high discharge capacity and high energy efficiency in comparison with a pristine commercial Nafion-117 membrane. The incorporation of zirconium oxide nanotubes in the Nafion matrix exhibits high proton conductivity (95.2 mS cm −1 ) and high oxidative stability (99.9%). The Nafion-ZrNT composite membrane exhibited low vanadium ion permeability (3.2 × 10 −9  cm 2  min −1 ) and superior ion selectivity (2.95 × 10 7  S min cm −3 ). The VRB constructed with a Nafion-ZrNT composite membrane has lower self-discharge rate maintaining an open-circuit voltage of 1.3 V for 330 h relative to a pristine Nafion membrane (29 h). The discharge capacity of Nafion-ZrNT membrane (987 mAh) was 3.5-times higher than Nafion-117 membrane (280 mAh) after 100 charge-discharge cycles. These superior properties resulted in higher coulombic and voltage efficiencies with Nafion-ZrNT membranes compared to VRB with Nafion-117 membrane at a 40 mA cm −2 current density.