Therapeutic molecules against type 2 diabetes: What we have and what are we expecting?

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Pharmacological reports : PR, ISSN: 1734-1140, Vol: 69, Issue: 5, Page: 959-970

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Kumar, Ashwini; Bharti, Sudhanshu Kumar; Kumar, Awanish
Elsevier BV
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics
review description
World Health Organization (WHO) has identified diabetes as one of the fastest growing non-communicable diseases with 422 million patients around the world in 2014. Diabetes, a metabolic disease, is characterized primarily by hyperglycemia which results in various macrovascular and microvascular complications like cardiovascular disease and neuropathies which can significantly deteriorate the quality of life. The body either does not manufactures enough insulin (type 1 diabetes or T1DM) or becomes insensitive to physiologically secreted insulin or both (type 2 diabetes or T2DM). The majority of the diabetic population is affected by type 2 diabetes. Currently, hyperglycemia is treated by a broad range of molecules such as biguanides, sulfonylurea, insulin, thiazolidinediones, incretin mimetics, and DPP-4 inhibitors exerting different mechanisms. However, new drug classes have indeed come in the market such as SGLT-2 inhibitors and other are in the experimental stages such as GPR 40 agonists, GSK-3 inhibitors, GK activators and GPR21 inhibitors which definitely could be anticipated as safe and effective for diabetes therapy. This article reviews the general approach to currently approved therapies for type 2 diabetes and focusing on novel approaches that could be a panacea and might be useful in the future for diabetes patients.