Taxonomy of section and their production of aflatoxins, ochratoxins and other mycotoxins.

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Studies in mycology, ISSN: 0166-0616, Vol: 93, Page: 1-63

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J. C. Frisvad; T. O. Larsen; V. Hubka; F. Sklenář; A. Nováková; C. N. Ezekiel; S. B. Hong; A. J. Chen; M. Arzanlou; W. Mahakarnchanakul; R. A. Samson; J. Houbraken Show More Hide
Elsevier BV
Agricultural and Biological Sciences
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article description
Aflatoxins and ochratoxins are among the most important mycotoxins of all and producers of both types of mycotoxins are present in section , albeit never in the same species. Some of the most efficient producers of aflatoxins and ochratoxins have not been described yet. Using a polyphasic approach combining phenotype, physiology, sequence and extrolite data, we describe here eight new species in section . Phylogenetically, section is split in eight clades and the section currently contains 33 species. Two species only produce aflatoxin B and B ( and ), and 14 species are able to produce aflatoxin B, B, G and G: three newly described species and in addition to , , (formerly ) and . It is generally accepted that is unable to produce type G aflatoxins, but here we report on Korean strains that also produce aflatoxin G and G. One strain of can produce the immediate aflatoxin precursor 3-O-methylsterigmatocystin, and one strain of and two strains of produced versicolorins. Strains of the domesticated forms of and , and , respectively, lost their ability to produce aflatoxins, and from the remaining phylogenetically closely related species (belonging to the -, -, - and -clades), only , and are unable to produce aflatoxins. With exception of in the -clade, all species in the phylogenetically more distant clades (-, -, - and -clade) are unable to produce aflatoxins. Three out of the four species in the -clade can produce the mycotoxin ochratoxin A: . . and two new species described here as and . Eight species produced the mycotoxin tenuazonic acid: , , , and while the related mycotoxin cyclopiazonic acid was produced by 13 species: , and . Furthermore, produced speradine A, a compound related to cyclopiazonic acid. Selected and strains produced small sclerotia containing the mycotoxin aflatrem. Kojic acid has been found in all species in section , except and . Only six species in the section did not produce any known mycotoxins: , and . An overview of other small molecule extrolites produced in section is given.