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- Anomalous Diffraction Theory; Fu-Liou model; Cirrus Clouds; ice crystals
The single-scattering properties of six non-spherical ice crystals, droxtals, plates, solid columns, hollow columns, aggregates and 6-branch bullet rosettes are simulated. The anomalous diffraction theory (ADT) is applied to the simulation of the extinction efficiency and the absorption efficiency. Because the first order reflection is considered, the accuracy of the absorption efficiency increases with the increasing of the size parameter. Compared with the reference single-scattering properties from an improved geometric optics method (IGOM), the errors in the extinction and absorption efficiencies are small. In addition, the asymmetry factor is formulated within the framework of diffraction and external reflection. The asymmetry factor based on the ADT matches very well with the IGOM counterpart when the absorption is strong, but needs an improvement in the solar region. The errors in conjunction with the application of the ADT-based optical properties to the computation of atmospheric fluxes and heating rates, based on the Fu-Liou model also are investigated. Two cases, one for tropical cirrus clouds and the other for mid-latitude cirrus clouds, are designed. It is found that the errors of bulk asymmetry factor between ADT-based and IGOM-based result in an overestimation of downward infrared (IR) fluxes and upward solar fluxes, and an underestimation of upward IR fluxes and downward solar fluxes. The errors of the fluxes and heating rates based on two sets of single-scattering properties are caused mainly by the underestimation of the bulk absorption efficiency based on ADT. It is also shown that ADT-based optical properties generate more accurate radiative properties for tropical cirrus clouds than for the mid-latitude cirrus clouds. In conclusion, the ADT-based method can generate reasonably accurate single-scattering properties of ice crystals, and can result in reasonable upward IR and solar fluxes at top of atmosphere (TOA), downward IR fluxes at the surface, and net heating rates.