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Gabriel Catren, Julien Page
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We analyze the notion of indiscernibility in the light of the Galois theory of field extensions and the generalization to K-algebras proposed by Grothendieck. Grothendieck's reformulation of Galois theory permits to recast the Galois correspondence between symmetry groups and invariants as a duality between G-spaces and the minimal observable algebras that separate theirs points. In order to address the Galoisian notion of indiscernibility, we propose what we call an epistemic reading of the Galois-Grothendieck theory. According to this viewpoint, the Galoisian notion of indiscernibility results from the limitations of the `resolving power' of the observable algebras used to discern the corresponding `coarse-grained' states. The resulting Galois-Grothendieck duality is rephrased in the form of what we call a Galois indiscernibility principle. According to this principle, there exists an inverse correlation between the coarsegrainedness of the states and the size of the minimal observable algebra that discern these states.

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