Methodological Individualism and Holism in Political Science: A Reconciliation

Citation data:

American Political Science Review, ISSN: 0003-0554, Vol: 107, Issue: 04, Page: 629-643

Publication Year:
2013
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Repository URL:
http://philsci-archive.pitt.edu/id/eprint/11343
DOI:
10.1017/s0003055413000373
Author(s):
List, Christian, Spiekermann, Kai
Publisher(s):
Cambridge University Press (CUP)
Tags:
Social Sciences
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article description
Political science is divided between methodological individualists, who seek to explain political phenomena by reference to individuals and their interactions, and holists (or nonreductionists), who consider some higher-level social entities or properties such as states, institutions, or cultures ontologically or causally significant. We propose a reconciliation between these two perspectives, building on related work in philosophy. After laying out a taxonomy of different variants of each view, we observe that (i) although political phenomena result from underlying individual attitudes and behavior, individual-level descriptions do not always capture all explanatorily salient properties, and (ii) nonreductionistic explanations are mandated when social regularities are robust to changes in their individual-level realization. We characterize the dividing line between phenomena requiring nonreductionistic explanation and phenomena permitting individualistic explanation and give examples from the study of ethnic conflicts, social-network theory, and international-relations theory. © 2013 American Political Science Association.

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