In reply—Maternal, paternal, and societal efforts are needed to "cure" childhood obesity.

Citation data:

Mayo Clinic proceedings, ISSN: 1942-5546, Vol: 90, Issue: 4, Page: 555-7

Publication Year:
2015
Usage 958
Abstract Views 562
Link-outs 242
Downloads 143
Full Text Views 8
Clicks 3
Captures 70
Exports-Saves 69
Readers 1
Mentions 3
News Mentions 2
References 1
Social Media 65
Shares, Likes & Comments 50
Tweets 14
+1s 1
Citations 23
Citation Indexes 23
Repository URL:
http://philsci-archive.pitt.edu/id/eprint/11548
PMID:
25440888, 25841259
DOI:
10.1016/j.mayocp.2014.08.006, 10.1016/j.mayocp.2015.01.020
PMCID:
PMC4289440, PMC4527549
Author(s):
Archer, Edward
Publisher(s):
Elsevier BV, Elsevier
Tags:
Medicine
Most Recent Tweet View All Tweets
Most Recent News Mention
article description
Over the past century, socioenvironmental evolution (eg, reduced pathogenic load, decreased physical activity, and improved nutrition) led to cumulative increments in maternal energy resources (ie, body mass and adiposity) and decrements in energy expenditure and metabolic control. These decrements reduced the competition between maternal and fetal energy demands and increased the availability of energy substrates to the intrauterine milieu. This perturbation of mother-conceptus energy partitioning stimulated fetal pancreatic β-cell and adipocyte hyperplasia, thereby inducing an enduring competitive dominance of adipocytes over other tissues in the acquisition and sequestering of nutrient energy via intensified insulin secretion and hyperplastic adiposity. At menarche, the competitive dominance of adipocytes was further amplified via hormone-induced adipocyte hyperplasia and weight-induced decrements in physical activity. These metabolic and behavioral effects were propagated progressively when obese, inactive, metabolically compromised women produced progressively larger, more inactive, metabolically compromised children. Consequently, the evolution of human energy metabolism was markedly altered. This phenotypic evolution was exacerbated by increments in the use of cesarean sections, which allowed both the larger fetuses and the metabolically compromised mothers who produced them to survive and reproduce. Thus, natural selection was iatrogenically rendered artificial selection, and the frequency of obese, inactive, metabolically compromised phenotypes increased in the global population. By the late 20th century, a metabolic tipping point was reached at which the postprandial insulin response was so intense, the relative number of adipocytes so large, and inactivity so pervasive that the competitive dominance of adipocytes in the sequestering of nutrient energy was inevitable and obesity was unavoidable.

This article has 1 Wikipedia mention.

Maternal effect

A maternal effect is a situation where the phenotype of an organism is determined not only by the environment it experiences and its genotype, but also by the environment and genotype of its mother. In genetics, maternal effects occur when an organism shows the phenotype expec...

Read full Article