Causal superseding.

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Cognition, ISSN: 1873-7838, Vol: 137, Page: 196-209

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Kominsky, Jonathan F; Phillips, Jonathan; Gerstenberg, Tobias; Lagnado, David; Knobe, Joshua
Elsevier BV
Arts and Humanities; Psychology; Social Sciences; Neuroscience
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article description
When agents violate norms, they are typically judged to be more of a cause of resulting outcomes. In this paper, we suggest that norm violations also affect the causality attributed to other agents, a phenomenon we refer to as "causal superseding." We propose and test a counterfactual reasoning model of this phenomenon in four experiments. Experiments 1 and 2 provide an initial demonstration of the causal superseding effect and distinguish it from previously studied effects. Experiment 3 shows that this causal superseding effect is dependent on a particular event structure, following a prediction of our counterfactual model. Experiment 4 demonstrates that causal superseding can occur with violations of non-moral norms. We propose a model of the superseding effect based on the idea of counterfactual sufficiency.