Classical Motion and Instantaneous Velocity
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The impetus theory of motion states that to be in motion is to have a non-zero velocity. The at-at theory of motion states that to be in motion is nothing over and above being at different places at different times, which in classical physics is naturally understood as the reduction of velocities to position developments. I first defend the at-at theory against the criticism that it renders determinism impossible. I then defend a novel impetus theory of motion that reduces positions to velocity developments. As these two accounts are, I claim, epistemically on par, I conclude that there is a surprising metaphysical underdetermination in our understanding of classical motion.