Equivalent theories redefine Hamiltonian observables to exhibit change in general relativity
 Citation data:

Classical and Quantum Gravity, ISSN: 13616382, Vol: 34, Issue: 5, Page: 055008
 Publication Year:
 2017
 Repository URL:
 http://arxiv.org/abs/1609.04812; http://philsciarchive.pitt.edu/id/eprint/12870
 DOI:
 10.1088/13616382/aa5ce8
 Author(s):
 Publisher(s):
 Tags:
 Physics and Astronomy; General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology; High Energy Physics  Theory; Physics  History and Philosophy of Physics
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article description
Change and local spatial variation are missing in canonical General Relativity's observables as usually defined, an aspect of the problem of time. Definitions can be tested using equivalent formulations of a theory, nongauge and gauge, because they must have equivalent observables and everything is observable in the nongauge formulation. Taking an observable from the nongauge formulation and finding the equivalent in the gauge formulation, one requires that the equivalent be an observable, thus constraining definitions. For massive photons, the de BroglieProca nongauge formulation observable Ais equivalent to the StueckelbergUtiyama gauge formulation quantity A+ ∂φ, which must therefore be an observable. To achieve that result, observables must have 0 Poisson bracket not with each firstclass constraint, but with the RosenfeldAndersonBergmannCastellani gauge generator G, a tuned sum of firstclass constraints, in accord with the PonsSalisbury Sundermeyer definition of observables. The definition for external gauge symmetries can be tested using massive gravity, where one can install gauge freedom by parametrization with clock fields X. The nongauge observable ghas the gauge equivalent X,gX,The Poisson bracket of X,gX,with G turns out to be not 0 but a Lie derivative. This nonzero Poisson bracket refines and systematizes Kuchař's proposal to relax the 0 Poisson bracket condition with the Hamiltonian constraint. Thus observables need covariance, not invariance, in relation to external gauge symmetries. The Lagrangian and Hamiltonian for massive gravity are those of General Relativity + Λ + 4 scalars, so the same definition of observables applies to General Relativity. Local fields such as gare observables. Thus observables change. Requiring equivalent observables for equivalent theories also recovers HamiltonianLagrangian equivalence.