Sources of unintentionally produced polychlorinated naphthalenes.
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Chemosphere, ISSN: 1879-1298, Vol: 94, Page: 1-12
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- Environmental Science; Chemistry; Emission factors; Emission inventory; Emission profiles; Persistent organic pollutants; Polychlorinated naphthalenes
The European Union has proposed that polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) should be included in the annexes of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, signifying that there will be an increase in activities aimed at reducing PCN emissions. It has been speculated that the unintentional formation and emission of PCNs from industrial activities are the main current sources, because they have ceased to be manufactured as industrial chemicals in many countries. In this review, we provide a brief overview of recent progress in research into the unintentional formation and emission of PCNs from various industries that use thermal processes. The sampling and analysis of PCNs, and their formation mechanisms during thermal processes, are reviewed and discussed. The emission levels, emission profiles, and emission factors of PCNs from a number of industries that use thermal processes are summarized and compared, and this will provide helpful information for planning PCN source control measures and studying the source-receptor relationships of PCNs.