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- 建成环境; 体力活动; 儿童; 地理信息系统; built environment; physical activity; children; GIS
目的:分析以地理信息系统(GIS)测量的住所周围建成环境与香港儿童体力活动的关系。方法:本研究的样本为香港一间小学的81名7~11岁儿童(男生44人)。本研究数据来自一项为期三年的追踪研究——儿童体力活动与营养调查(UCAN计划)。受试儿童体力活动分别以Acti Graph GT3X型加速度计和家长问卷进行测量。受试儿童住所周围道路总长度及住所至最近康乐设施的距离以GIS(Arc Map 10.0)测量。受试儿童被分为长道路组(住所周围道路总长度≥50百分位)与短道路组(住所周围道路总长度<50百分位),及近设施组(住所至最近康乐设施的距离≤50百分位)与远设施组(住所至最近康乐设施的距离>50百分位)。各组间(长道路组vs.短道路组;近设施组vs.远设施组)的体力活动时间差异以单因素协方差分析比较,同时控制受试儿童性别、年龄、身体质量指数(BMI)及母亲受教育水平。结果:加速度计测量的数据显示,男生无论在上学日还是周末日均比女生活跃。在控制受试儿童性别、年龄、BMI及母亲受教育水平后,单因素协方差分析显示相对于远设施组儿童,近设施组儿童参与中高强度体力活动时间较长(126.8±34.4 vs.113.6±27.1分钟/天,P<0.05);而两组间问卷报告的体力活动无差异。长道路组与短道路组间加速度计及问卷测量的体力活动均未见差异。结论:本研究初步证实,住所附近康乐设施对香港儿童的体力活动具有积极影响。今后的研究应纳入更具代表性的样本及更多的建成环境指标,以获得城市建成环境与儿童体力活动关系的更有力证据。 Objective This study aimed to investigate the relationship between Geographic Information System(GIS)–measured neighborhood built environment and children’s physical activity(PA) in Hong Kong.Methods Participants in this study were 81 children(boys = 44) aged 7-11 years from a primary school in Hong Kong. Data were collected as part of a three-year longitudinal study:Understanding Children’s Activity and Nutrition(UCAN). Children’s PA was measured by using an Acti Graph GT3 X accelerometer and a parent-report questionnaire. Total road length in the neighborhood and distance to the nearest recreational facility were measured by GIS(Arc Map 10.0). Children were classified into long road length group(LRLG,lying in the upper 50 percentile) vs. short road length group(SRLG, lying in the lower 50 percentile); and close to recreational facility group(CRFG, lying in the lower 50 percentile) vs. far to recreational facility group(FRFG, lying in the upper 50 percentile), respectively. Differences of children’s PA between LRLG and SRLG groups and between CRFG and FRFG groups were determined by one-way analysis of covariance(ANCOVA) controlling for children’s sex, age, BMI, and maternal education level using SPSS 17.0. Results Accelerometer data revealed that boys were more active than girls on both weekdays and weekend days. After controlling for children’s sex, age, BMI, and maternal education level, ANCOVA showed that children in CRFG had a higher level of accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous PA compared to children in FRFG(126.8 ± 34.4 vs. 113.6 ± 27.1 minutes/day, P < 0.05), whereas no differences were found for questionnairemeasured PA between CRFG and FRFG. No differences were found for accelerometer-and questionnaire-measured PA between LRLG and SRLG. Conclusion This pilot study provided preliminary evidence of the positive relationship between neighborhood recreational facility and children’s PA in Hong Kong. Further research with representative sample and more comprehensive investigations into the neighborhood built environment is recommended for more robust evidence.