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A new genus and five new species belonging in the Ceramieae have been found in recent analyses of the Hawaiian Ceramiaceae. Ardreanema, the new genus, is a microscopic plant having a simple moniliform structure with light cortication where cells meet (nodes) in the filament. Several gonimolobes composed of uniseriate rows of carposporangia are formed on female plants, and tetrasporangia, one per segment, are borne in a series near distal ends of branches. A single species, A. farifructa, n. sp., is assigned to the genus. The other new species are Ceramium dumosertum, Ceramium womersleyi, Ceramium hanaense, and Ceramium ptilocladioides.