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Ten species offishes of the genus Kuhlia are recognized from Palau to Hawai'i in the North Pacific and from Fiji to Easter Island in the South Pacific: K malo (Valenciennes) from fresh water in the Society Islands; K marginata (Cuvier) from fresh water in the western Pacific, east to Kosrae, Caroline Islands, and Fiji; K mugil (Forster) (K taeniura is a synonym) from most of the Indo-Pacific (not the Hawaiian Islands) and the tropical eastern Pacific; K munda (De Vis) from fresh and brackish water in Fiji, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, and Queensland (K proxima Kendall & Goldsborough and K bilunulata Herre are synonyms); K nutabunda Kendall & Radcliffe from Easter Island; K petiti Schultz from the Phoenix Islands, Malden Island, and the Marquesas Islands (Dules taeniurus marquesensis Fowler is a synonym); K sandvicensis (Steindachner) from the Hawaiian Islands and other islands of the central Pacific; K rupestris (Lacepede) from fresh water from East Africa to Samoa (K caerulescens Regan from the Solomon Islands is a new synonym); K saklea Schultz from fresh water in the Samoa Islands; and K xenura (Jordan & Gilbert) from the Hawaiian Islands, with a mistaken type locality of El Salvador, Central America. The name K sandvicensis has long been used for the common endemic species in the Hawaiian Islands; however, the original description leaves little doubt that it should apply to the species widely distributed in the central Pacific and only recently discovered in Hawai'i; it has usually been misidentified as K marginata. The endemic Hawaiian species therefore takes the only available name, K xenura (Jordan & Gilbert). Kuhlia sandvicensis differs from K xenura in having a smaller eye (3.0-3.45 in head length, compared with 2.55-2.95 for K xenura), straight dorsal profile of the head of adults (concave in xenura); usually 14 pectoral-fin rays (usually 15 in xenura), usually 50 lateral-line scales (usually 49 in xenura), gill rakers 38-43 (35-39 for xenura), and a dark reticular pattern dorsally on the head in life.