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Zoo Animal and Wildlife Immobilization and Anesthesia, Page: 459-472

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Redig, Patrick T., Willette, Michelle, Ponder, Julia
Wiley-Blackwell, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
book chapter description
The raptors or birds of prey are an assemblage of avian species representing convergent evolution from diverse lineages, as opposed to distinct taxonomic relationships among major orders. Many raptors are maintained in captivity, some in very close association with humans, as in the sport of falconry or trained and bonded to handlers for use in educational programs; this bonding necessitates different approaches to handling for restraint than for wild counterparts. Intubation of raptors is a straightforward procedure and recommended to provide a means of ventilatory support for any procedures that exceed 20-30 minutes. Raptors are also amenable to air sac cannulation and this is a very useful modality for relieving dyspnea associated with upper airway obstruction or for administering gas anesthesia in instances where the presence of an endotracheal tube would interfere with manipulations about the head and mouth. Combinations of ketamine and benzodiazepenes have utility in anesthesia of raptor.

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