Characterization of the oxide scale formed on external surface of HP reformer tubes

Citation data:

Journal of Materials Research and Technology, ISSN: 2238-7854, Vol: 7, Issue: 4, Page: 578-583

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Rosa Maria Sales da Silveira; Mónica P. Arenas; Clara Johanna Pacheco; Adriana da Cunha Rocha; Carlos Bruno Eckstein; Antonio Carlos Bruno; Gabriela Ribeiro Pereira; Luiz Henrique de Almeida
Elsevier BV
Materials Science
article description
This work presents the characterization of the external oxide scale of a centrifugally cast HP steel tube, modified with Nb and Ti, after 90,000 h of operation in a steam reforming furnace, showing different aging states as a function of the column height and exposure temperature. The objective was to relate the oxide microstructural morphology to its magnetic response for three different microstructural aging states. The morphological and compositional characterization was performed by high resolution scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer and X-ray diffraction. The magnetic response of the external surface was analyzed by magnetic force microscopy and scanning magnetic susceptometer. The results showed the formation of a multilayer oxide scale with different compositions along its thickness. In addition, a microstructural modification was identified in the scale-matrix interface, due to the depletion of chromium. It was also observed that the magnetic response is dependable both on the oxide scale thickness and the chromium carbides depleted zone. Magnetic force microscopy was able to identify the origin of the magnetic response resulted from the steel tube surface.