Controls for Smart Grids: Architectures and Applications
- Citation data:
Proceedings of the IEEE, ISSN: 0018-9219, Vol: 105, Issue: 11, Page: 2244-2261
- Publication Year:
Control is and will continue to be a key discipline for realizing the objectives of smart grid initiatives. Research in control science and engineering is not limited to one or a few application concepts but is pervasive across the smart grid ecosystem. The principal contribution of this paper is to review, from a system-architectural perspective, how control enables smart grid applications. Application 'templates' are presented for direct load control, automated demand response, microgrid optimization, control for distribution grids, wide-area control, and market-centric control. Technological developments, including in power electronics, that are enabling smart grid control research and applications are also itemized and two cross-cutting needs/opportunities for future research discussed. We conclude with a summary of a recent status report on the progress that has been made in the United States, noting also the challenges to further progress, in renewable generation, energy efficiency, and carbon reduction.