A Comparison of the Natural History of HPV Infection and Cervical Abnormalities among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Women in Senegal, Africa.
Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology,
There is evidence of an interaction between HIV and human papillomavirus (HPV) resulting in increased HPV-associated morbidity and cancer mortality among HIV-positive women. This study aims to determine how the natural history of cervical HPV infection differs by HIV status. A total of 1,320 women (47% were positive for HIV-1 and/or HIV-2) were followed for an average of two years in Senegal, West Africa between 1994 and 2010. Cytology (with a sub-sample of histology) and HPV DNA testing were performed at approximately 4-month intervals yielding data from over 7,900 clinic visits. Competing risk modeling was used to estimate rates for transitioning between three clinically relevant natural history stages: Normal, HPV, and HSIL (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions). Among HIV-positive women, exploratory univariate analyses were conducted examining the impact of HPV type, infection with multiple HPV types, HIV type, CD4 count, and age. HIV-positive women had higher rates of progression and lower rates of regression compared with HIV-negative women (i.e., adverse transitions). HIV-positive women had a 2.55 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.69-3.86; < 0.0001] times higher rate of progression from HPV to HSIL than HIV-negative women (with 24-month absolute risks of 0.18 and 0.07, respectively). Among HIV-positive women, HPV-16/18 infection and CD4 count <200/mm were associated with adverse transitions. Adverse HIV effects persist throughout HPV natural history stages. In the limited-resource setting of sub-Saharan Africa where cervical cancer screening is not widely available, the high-risk population of HIV-positive women may be ideal for targeted screening. .
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