Effects of Different-Race Exposure in School and Neighborhood on the Reading Achievement of Hmong Students in the United States

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Urban Education, ISSN: 0042-0859, Vol: 52, Issue: 10, Page: 1255-1283

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Moosung Lee; Beatrice Oi-Yeung Lam; Na’im Madyun
SAGE Publications
Social Sciences
article description
Based on analyses of 1,622 Hmong adolescents in a large urban school district, we illuminate a positive association between school different-race exposure and Hmong limited English proficient students’ reading achievement. However, we also note a negative association of neighborhood different-race exposure with Hmong students from low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. These findings suggest that even if school different-race exposure opportunities are developed through racially diverse schools, this does not necessarily lead to desirable interracial social ties between Hmong students and mainstream English-speaking students. Rather, Hmong students from low SES backgrounds are more likely to benefit academically when they reside in predominantly Hmong neighborhoods.