- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) play a crucial role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)exacerbating the chronic inflammatory process. Endogenous and diet antioxidants can neutralize thesecompounds. The apple is widely consumed, with several antioxidant activity compounds. The present studyevaluated the effects of concentrated apple extract (CAE) in acetic acid induced colitis. 29 Wistar male rats wererandomized into 5 groups. G1-Sham/saline solution, G2-CAE/control, G3-acetic acid/control, G4-curative-CAE treatment and G5-preventive-CAE treatment. Eight days later, the animals were euthanized and the colonicsegment resected for macroscopic and histological analysis. Gene expression was evaluated for inducible nitricoxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), catalase and copper and zinc superoxide dismutase(CuZnSOD) by quantitative real time PCR, while protein expression was assessed for iNOS, COX-2 and 8-hydroxy-20-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) via immunohistochemistry. The groups G3, G4 and G5 had weight loss,while G5 had weight increase at the end of the experiment. The treatment with CAE reduced the macroscopicand microscopic injury, decreased iNOS mRNA expression and increased CuZnSOD mRNA expression inanimals with induced acetic acid-colitis. The findings of the present study suggest that CAE treatment exerts anantioxidant role by downregulating iNOS and upregulating CuZnSOD.