Dissolution of the chondrocyte cytoskeleton prevents mitochondrial oxidant release and cell death in injured articular cartilage

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https://ir.uiowa.edu/etd/1175; https://ir.uiowa.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2559&context=etd
Sauter, Ellen Elizabeth
University of Iowa
cartilage; cytoskeleton; mitochondria; ROS; Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering
thesis / dissertation description
It has been shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are released in response to articular cartilage injury. The excessive release of ROS has been shown to be mitochondrial in nature and leads to chondrocyte death which in turn can lead to post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). Evidence suggests that mitochondria are attached to chondrocytes' cytoskeleton. Upon tissue level deformation, it is believed that mitochondria also experience deformation in response to cytoskeletal strain, releasing ROS. Therefore, it was hypothesized that inhibition of chondrocytes' cytoskeleton would prevent mitochondrial distortion rendering them unable to release ROS in response to the applied strain, saving chondrocytes. Osteochondral explants treated with cytoskeletal inhibitors were found to reduce mitochondrial ROS production directly after impact and increase chondrocyte viability 24 hours after impact. The release of mitochondrial ROS is an important mechanotranduction pathway in the initiation of PTOA.