A Longitudinal Study of Masters Swimmers' Commitment
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- SOCIAL-EXCHANGE THEORY; SPORT COMMITMENT; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY; MODEL; MOTIVATION; DETERMINANTS; SATISFACTION; BURNOUT; Psychology; Sports Sciences
Using the Sport Commitment Model (SCM; Scanlan et al., 2003; Wilson et al., 2004) as a conceptual framework, we surveyed 190 international-level Masters swimmers (91 in, 99 f; M age = 51.9 yrs; range = 26-80) on two occasions, one year apart. We used repeated measures ANOVAs (Analysis 1) and hierarchical regression analyses (Analysis 2) to examine which SCM determinants predicted changes in functional commitment (PC) and obligatory commitment (OC) for all swimmers, and as a function of age. Analysis 1 revealed that groups increasing in enjoyment/satisfaction, personal investments, and involvement opportunities had increased PC, while groups decreasing in enjoyment/satisfaction had decreased PC (ps <.01). Analysis 2 demonstrated that FC was predicted by enjoyment/satisfaction (B =.76, p <.05), and that age moderated the determinant relationships for personal investments (.01), involvement opportunities (-.03) and social constraints (.02), Adj R(2) =.39, p <.001. Analysis 2 also showed that social support (B = -.37, p <.05), personal investments (32) and involvement alternatives (17) predicted OC irrespective of age, Adj R(2) =.14, p <.001.