Finding a Between-Person Negative Effect of Self-Efficacy on Performance: Not Just a Within-Person Effect Anymore
- Citation data:
Human Performance, ISSN: 0895-9285, Vol: 27, Issue: 3, Page: 243-261
- Publication Year:
- Psychology; Business, Management and Accounting; performance; self-efficacy
Research examining the relationship between self-efficacy and performance has tended to find a positive effect at the between-person level and a weak negative or null effect at the within-person level. This pattern of results has led to a belief that the level of analysis is a key factor in determining the sign of the relationship. Using a between-person experimental design, the authors demonstrate a negative effect for self-efficacy on motivation and quality of performance at the between-person level. A positive effect for self-efficacy on the quantity of tasks engaged, apparently due to the reduction in motivation on each task, was also found. The discussion focused on the relevance of the findings in the debate between social cognitive and control theorists. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.