Evaluation of Anti-Mullerian Hormone/Inhibin B Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay to Predict Reproductive Status in Asian Elephants (Elephas Maximus)
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- anti-Müllarian hormone; Müllarian inhibiting substance; inhibin B; Asian elephant; Elephas maximus; ELISA; Agriculture
The ability to accurately identify individual Asian elephants with fertility impairments using anti-Mü;llarian hormone (AMH) and Inhibin B assays could, if successful, determine whether an elephant would be a good candidate for artificial insemination or semen collection, and would improve reproductive efficiency. This project examined the extent of ovarian reserve in female Asian elephants and reproductive status in males by using anti-Mü;llarian hormone, inhibin B and inhibin A enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Five categories of female and six male reproductive statuses were measured utilizing serum samples obtained primarily from one captive Asian elephant herd. Categories included pre-pubertal, reproductive adolescence, mature reproductive, aged, and post-reproductive for females, and pre-pubertal, puberty, mature, aged, post-reproductive, and castrated for males. Anti-Mü;llerian hormone (AMH) concentrations appears to be a good candidate for reproductive monitoring in Asian elephants. Mean (+- SEM) serum AMH was notably higher in males than females with overall means of 44.797 and 0.052 ng/ml respectively. Levels of AMH (P = 0.0007) and inhibin A (P = 0.0040) peaked in females during reproductive adolescent (0.068 +- 0.008 ng/ml and 43.773 +- 2.738 pg/ml respectively) and decreased once post-reproductive (0.033 +- 0.021 ng/ml and 36.233 pg/ml respectively). In males, AMH concentrations were highest in pre-pubertal elephants (88.323 +- 16.506 ng/ml) and decreased with age, reaching low concentrations once post-reproductive (2.200 +- 38.710 ng/ml). Male seasonality was also observed in AMH concentrations, with winter having two times higher levels than summer (P = 0.0065).