A study of the effect of pictorial markings and warning labels on handling of packages in the DHL single-parcel environment
- Citation data:
Packaging Technology and Science, ISSN: 0894-3214, Vol: 22, Issue: 1, Page: 1-8
- Publication Year:
- Repository URL:
- http://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/it_fac/46; http://works.bepress.com/ksaha/9; https://works.bepress.com/jasingh/40
- Chemistry; Materials Science; Engineering; package handling; express delivery; pictorial markings; warning labels; drops; Industrial Technology
Over the past two decades, there has been a heavy influx in the number of direct-to-consumer express shipments of packaged products. As a consequence, parcel delivery companies, such as DHL, FedEx and UPS, have strengthened their presence in air transport. This study measured and analysed the effect of moving single packages through air shipments in the USA using one of the newest service providers, DHL. The study also quantified the effect of placing pictorial markings and warning labels on mid-sized and lightweight packages when using Next-Day and 2nd Day services provided by the carrier DHL. Instrumented packages measuring 0.38 m × 0.34 m × 0.34 m and weighing 6.8 kg were shipped from Michigan to California and New York. A total of 48 trips were conducted to collect the data for this study. The results show that for the Next-Day and 2nd Day service, packages with labels, as compared with those without labels, were subjected to approximately the same number of drops for shipment to California, and approximately 35% less drops for shipments to New York. The drop-height data for the shipments are presented in terms of drop heights associated with the 90, 95 and 99th percentile of occurrence. Impact orientation is also discussed. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.