Prevention of Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia: An Integrative Review

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CONFERENCE: The Research and Scholarship Symposium

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Craig, Taylor M.; Lingaas, Jessica L.; Reisner, Rebekkah C.; Smith, Mary C.
Hospital-acquired pneumonia; prevention; nosocomial pneumonia; Medicine and Health Sciences; Nursing; Respiratory Tract Diseases
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Background: Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) not only brings about physical challenges to patients that can lead to death, it also involves financial burdens. Research on how to prevent HAP is a necessity; however, a deficit exists in research concerning prevention of non-ventilator hospital-acquired pneumonia (NV-HAP). The purpose of this study is to synthesize the current research on the nurse’s role in prevention of NV-HAP, identify where additional research is needed, and suggest clinical standards of care to prevent pneumonia in hospitalized patients.Methods: Data for this integrative review was collected from the following databases: PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), GoogleScholar, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, and OneSearch. An interview with a local hospital registered nurse was conducted.Results: Four different categories of interventions were researched and the results were synthesized. Oral care, the early mobility bundle and isolations rooms were found to significantly decrease the occurrence of NV-HAP. Incentive spirometry, on the other hand, was not found to effectively decrease NV-HAP.Discussion: While oral care, early mobility and isolation rooms were all found to significantly reduce the occurrence of NV-HAP, these interventions are most effective when the health care workers carrying them out are educated on properly performing each intervention.Conclusion: Enhanced oral care and enhanced mobility should be primary interventions for the prevention of NV-HAP, while incentive spirometry should be considered a secondary intervention. More research is needed to be conclusive on the effectiveness of incentive spirometry and isolation rooms.