New Organogermanium Substrates for Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions. Application of Organogermanes towards the Synthesis of Carbon-5 Modified Uridine Analogues

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Pitteloud, Jean-Philippe
Florida International University
thesis / dissertation description
The diverse biological properties exhibited by uridine analogues modified at carbon-5 of the uracil base have attracted special interest to the development of efficient methodologies for their synthesis. This study aimed to evaluate the possible application of vinyl tris(trimethylsilyl)germanes in the synthesis of conjugated 5-modified uridine analogues via Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. The stereoselective synthesis of 5-[(2-tris(trimethylsilyl)germyl)ethenyl]uridine derivatives was achieved by the radical-mediated hydrogermylation of the protected 5-alkynyluridine precursors with tris(trimethylsilyl)germane [(TMS)3GeH]. The hydrogermylation with Ph3GeH afforded in addition to the expected 5-vinylgermane, novel 5-(2-triphenylgermyl)acetyl derivatives. Also, the treatment with Me3GeH provided access to 5-vinylgermane uridine analogues with potential biological applications. Since the Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling of organogermanes has received much less attention than the couplings involving organostannanes and organosilanes, we were prompted to develop novel organogermane precursors suitable for transfer of aryl and/or alkenyl groups. The allyl(phenyl)germanes were found to transfer allyl groups to aryl iodides in the presence of sodium hydroxide or tetrabutylammonium fluoride (TBAF) via a Heck arylation mechanism. On the other hand, the treatment of allyl(phenyl)germanes with tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) effectively cleaved the Ge-C(allyl) bonds and promoted the transfer of the phenyl groups upon fluoride activation in toluene. It was discovered that the trichlorophenyl,- dichlorodiphenyl,- and chlorotriphenylgermanes undergo Pd-catalyzed cross-couplings with aryl bromides and iodides in the presence of TBAF in toluene with addition of the measured amount of water. One chloride ligand on the Ge center allows efficient activation by fluoride to promote transfer of one, two or three phenyl groups from the organogermane precursors. The methodology shows that organogermanes can render a coupling efficiency comparable to the more established stannane and silane counterparts. Our coupling methodology (TBAF/moist toluene) was also found to promote the transfer of multiple phenyl groups from analogous chloro(phenyl)silanes and stannanes.