On greening optical access networks
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- Energy efficiency; Optical access networks; Sleep mode; Control algorithm; OLT design; Electrical and Electronics
thesis / dissertation description
With the remarkable growth of fiber-based services, the number of FTTx subscribers has been dramatically increasing in recent years. Owing to the environmental concern, reducing energy consumption of optical access networks has become an important issue for network designers. In Ethernet passive optical network (EPON), the optical line terminal (OLT) located at the central office broadcasts the downstream traffic to all optical network units (ONUs), each of which checks all arrival downstream packets to obtain those destined to itself. Since traffic of ONUs changes dynamically, properly defining the sleep mode for idle ONUs can potentially save a significant amount of energy. However, it is challenging to shut down an ONU receiver as the ONU needs to receive some downstream control packets to perform upstream transmission. In this framework, a novel sleep control scheme is proposed to address the downstream issue which can efficiently put ONU receivers to sleep. This dissertation further defines multiple levels of power saving in which the ONU disables certain functions based on the upstream and downstream traffic load. The proposed schemes are completely compatible with the multi-point control protocol (MPCP) and EPON standards. Elimination of the handshake process makes the sleep control schemes more efficient. Currently, OLTs also consume a significant amount of energy in EPON. Therefore, reducing energy consumption of OLT is as important as reducing energy consumption of ONUs; such requirement becomes even more urgent as OLT keeps increasing its provisioning data rate, and higher data rate provisioning usually implies higher energy consumption. Thus, a novel energy-efficient OLT structure, which guarantees services of end users with a smallest number of power-on OLT line cards, is proposed. More specifically, the number of power-on OLT line cards is adapted to the real-time incoming traffic. Also, to avoid service disruption resulted by powering off OLT line cards, a proper optical switch is equipped in OLT to dynamically configure the communications between OLT line cards and ONUs. By deploying a semi-Markov based technique, the performance characteristics of the sleep control scheme such as delay and energy-saving are theoretically analyzed. It is shown that, with proper settings of sleep control parameters, the proposed scheme can save a significant amount of energy in EPON.