Optimization of cardiovascular stent design using computational fluid dynamics.
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Journal of biomechanical engineering, ISSN: 1528-8951, Vol: 134, Issue: 1, Page: 011002
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- Engineering; Medicine; computational fluid dynamics; coronary artery disease; cardiovascular stent; optimization; wall shear stress
Coronary stent design affects the spatial distribution of wall shear stress (WSS), which can influence the progression of endothelialization, neointimal hyperplasia, and restenosis. Previous computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies have only examined a small number of possible geometries to identify stent designs that reduce alterations in near-wall hemodynamics. Based on a previously described framework for optimizing cardiovascular geometries, we developed a methodology that couples CFD and three-dimensional shape-optimization for use in stent design. The optimization procedure was fully-automated, such that solid model construction, anisotropic mesh generation, CFD simulation, and WSS quantification did not require user intervention. We applied the method to determine the optimal number of circumferentially repeating stent cells (N(C)) for slotted-tube stents with various diameters and intrastrut areas. Optimal stent designs were defined as those minimizing the area of low intrastrut time-averaged WSS. Interestingly, we determined that the optimal value of N(C) was dependent on the intrastrut angle with respect to the primary flow direction. Further investigation indicated that stent designs with an intrastrut angle of approximately 40 deg minimized the area of low time-averaged WSS regardless of vessel size or intrastrut area. Future application of this optimization method to commercially available stent designs may lead to stents with superior hemodynamic performance and the potential for improved clinical outcomes.