Emotional distress as a key construct in the personal model of diabetes management : associations of fatigue, diabetes-specific distress, and depressive symptomatology with quality of life in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
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- Fatigue; Type 2 diabetes; Self-management; Quality of life; Diabetes-specific distress; Depression; Fatigue; Type 2 diabetes; Self-management; Quality of life; Diabetes-specific distress; Depression
thesis / dissertation description
The importance of maximizing self-management and quality of life is well documented in the diabetes literature. Although maintaining self-care is known to be important for individuals with type 2 diabetes, this is often difficult to maintain over time. Emotional distress has also been shown to impact self-care behaviors in adults with type 2 diabetes. Glasgow et al (1997) introduced a model of key variables influencing diabetes self-management. This study examined specific emotional Personal Model constructs of diabetes management. Independent and converging lines of research have implicated several potentially overlapping constructs that may reflect emotional distress in persons living with diabetes including: fatigue, distress, and global depression that is specific to the demands of diabetes. These emotional distress constructs have all been linked to self-management behavior and quality of life in chronic disease. This study sought to explain the associations between these emotional constructs and their impact on self-management and quality of life. Questionnaire and medical chart review data were collected from adults (N=151) with type 2 diabetes at an outpatient diabetes clinic. Depressive symptomatology, diabetes-specific distress, and fatigue were found to be moderately associated with one another. Fatigue and diabetes specific distress were found to be associated with diet, mental, and physical quality of life. Findings suggest the Problem Areas In Diabetes scale (PAID) had the strongest association with diet adherence. Depressive symptomatology, diabetes-specific distress, and fatigue have a significant negative impact physical and mental quality of life. Future research should include the impact of fatigue on quality of life in adults with type 2 diabetes.