Hugh Smith Cumming (August 17, 1869 – December 20, 1948) was an American physician, and soldier. He served as the fifth Surgeon General of the United States from 1920 to 1936. Biography Early lifeCumming was born in Hampton, Virginia. He received his undergraduate educati...
Eugenics, medical education, and the Public Health Service: Another perspective on the Tuskegee syphilis experiment.
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Bulletin of the history of medicine, ISSN: 0007-5140, Vol: 80, Issue: 2, Page: 291-316
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- Repository URL:
- https://readingroom.law.gsu.edu/faculty_pub/534; http://health-equity.pitt.edu/id/eprint/734; http://health-equity.lib.umd.edu/id/eprint/734
- Nursing; Medicine; Arts and Humanities; Eugenics; Health Law; History; Medical Ethics; Sexually Transmitted Diseases; Public Health; Reproductive Issues; Civil Rights and Discrimination; Health Law and Policy; Law; Law and Race; Law and Society
The Public Health Service (PHS) Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Male Negro (1932-72) is the most infamous American example of medical research abuse. Commentary on the study has often focused on the reasons for its initiation and for its long duration. Racism, bureaucratic inertia, and the personal motivations of study personnel have been suggested as possible explanations. We develop another explanation by examining the educational and professional linkages shared by three key physicians who launched and directed the study. PHS surgeon general Hugh Cumming initiated Tuskegee, and assistant surgeons general Taliaferro Clark and Raymond A. Vonderlehr presided over the study during its first decade. All three had graduated from the medical school at the University of Virginia, a center of eugenics teaching, where students were trained to think about race as a key factor in both the etiology and the natural history of syphilis. Along with other senior officers in the PHS, they were publicly aligned with the eugenics movement. Tuskegee provided a vehicle for testing a eugenic hypothesis: that racial groups were differentially susceptible to infectious diseases.