Neighbourhood disadvantage and smoking: Examining the role of neighbourhood-level psychosocial characteristics

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Health and Place, ISSN: 1353-8292, Vol: 40, Issue: 0, Page: 98-105

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Rachele, Jerome Nikolaos; Wood, Lisa; Nathan, Andrea Grace; Giskes, Katrina; Turrell, Gavin
Elsevier BV; Pergamon Press
Social Sciences; Medicine; smoking; neighbourhood disadvantage; psychosocial characteristics; social environment; socioeconomic status; Public Health
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© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Purpose: This study aims to determine if neighbourhood psychosocial characteristics contribute to inequalities in smoking among residents from neighbourhoods of differing socioeconomic disadvantage. Methods: This cross-sectional study includes 11,035 residents from 200 neighbourhoods in Brisbane, Australia in 2007. Self-reported measures were obtained for smoking and neighbourhood psychosocial characteristics (perceptions of incivilities, crime and safety, and social cohesion). Neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage was measured using a census-derived index. Data were analysed using multilevel logistic regression random intercept models. Results: Smoking was associated with neighbourhood disadvantage; this relationship remained after adjustment for individual-level socioeconomic position. Area-level perceptions of crime and safety and social cohesion were not independently associated with smoking, and did not explain the higher prevalence of smoking in disadvantaged areas; however, perceptions of incivilities showed an independent effect. Conclusions: Some neighbourhood psychosocial characteristics seem to contribute to the higher rates of smoking in disadvantaged areas.