Methods for Generating Multi-scale Watershed Delineations for Indicator Development in Great Lake Coastal Ecosystems
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Journal of Great Lakes Research, ISSN: 0380-1330, Vol: 33, Issue: sp3, Page: 13-26
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- Agricultural and Biological Sciences; Environmental Science; Biology; Life Sciences
Watersheds represent spatially explicit areas within which terrestrial stressors can be quantified and linked to measures of aquatic ecosystem condition. We delineated thousands of Great Lakes watersheds using previously proven and new watershed delineation techniques. These were used to provide summaries for a variety of anthropogenic stressors within the Great Lakes. All delineation techniques proved useful, but each had applications for which they were most appropriate. A set of watershed delineations and stressor summaries was developed for sampling site identification, providing relatively coarse strata for selecting sites along the U.S. Great Lakes coastline. Subsequent watershed delineations were used for high-resolution site characterization of specific sites and characterizing the full coastal stressor gradient. For these delineations we used three general approaches: 1) segmentation of the shoreline at points midway between adjacent streams and delineation of a watershed for each segment; 2) specific watershed delineations for sampled sites; and 3) a Great Lakes basin-wide, high-resolution approach wherein sub-basins can be agglomerated into larger basins for specific portions of the coast. The third approach is unique in that it provides a nested framework based on hierarchies of catchments with associated stressor data. This hierarchical framework was used to derive additional watershed delineations, and their associated stressor summaries, at four different scales. Providing anthropogenic stressor metrics in such a format that can quickly be summarized for the entire basin at multiple scales, or specifically for particular areas, establishes a strong foundation for quantifying and understanding stressor-response relationships in these coastal environments.