Relative Importance of Vessel-Generated and Wind Waves to Salt Marsh Erosion in a Restricted Fetch Environment
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Journal of Coastal Research, ISSN: 0749-0208, Vol: 262, Issue: 2, Page: 230-240
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- Environmental Science; Earth and Planetary Sciences; Georgia; Salt marsh erosion; Vessel-generated waves; Wind-generated waves
Erosion of a salt marsh at Fort Pulaski National Monument threatens a pier of historical significance along the North Channel of the Savannah River, the main shipping channel for the Port of Savannah, Georgia. The erosion was initiated by the alongshore and onshore migration of a supratidal oyster shell ridge that exposed a marsh scarp that is susceptible to lateral retreat in response to both wind-generated and vessel-generated waves undercutting the upper-marsh surface. An instrumented field study was completed between October 2007 and February 2008 to examine the relative importance of wind-generated and vessel-generated waves to the retreat of the scarp by 0.21 m along the instrumented transect. On average, there were 14 sailings by container ships per day and up to twice as many sailings by pilot boats ferrying the harbor pilots to container ships offshore, but only those vessels that sailed within 1 m of the high-tide water level had waves capable of reaching the scarp. The vessel-generated waves accounted for ∼5 of the cumulative wave energy over the study, but because of their larger height and longer period, they accounted for almost 25% of the cumulative wave force. It is the locally generated wind waves that account for most of the wave force acting on the exposed scarp and which are largely responsible for the observed retreat. Waves generated during both frontal and tropical storms tend to be associated with storm tides that maintain water levels at or near the elevation of the scarp for several days. Now that the shell ridge has largely migrated past the site and the areas of greater retreat historically are protected by a wedge of sand, it is argued that an increase in vessel traffic and/or the use of larger, post-Panamax ships will not significantly accelerate the retreat of the marsh. © 2010 Coastal Education and Research Foundation.