Evolution of antagonistic relationships in proteins: a case study of RADIALIS- and DIVIRICATA-like genes

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Gao, Ao; <p><a href="https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7454-6095">0000-0002-7454-6095</a></p>
RADIALIS DIVIRIACTA antagonistic FSM1 MYBI; Biology; Evolution; Genetics
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thesis / dissertation description
The antagonistic relationship of proteins describes the opponent interactions that result in one protein suppressing the function of another. Developmental genetic studies of Antirrhinum majus demonstrated that two transcription factors from the MYB gene family, RAD and DIV, interact through antagonism to regulate floral dorsoventral asymmetry. Interestingly, similar antagonistic interactions were found among proteins of FSM1 (RAD-like), MYBI (DIV-like), and DRIF in Solanum lycopersicum, which is involved in fruit development. Here, we report on the homology of these antagonistic MYB proteins based on reconstruction of the phylogeny of I-box-like and R-R-type clades, where RAD- and DIV-like belong, respectively. Three paralogs of RAD-/I-box-like genes, RAD1, RAD2, and RAD3 are reprensent in the phylogeny, which originated in the common ancestor of the core eudicots. In contrast, R-R-type sequences fall into two major clades, RR1 and RR2, which are the result of gene duplication in the common ancestor of monocots and dicots. RR1 was divided into clades, RR1A, RR1B, and RR1C, while RR2 divided into clades, RR2A/DIV1, RR2B/DIV2, and RR2C/DIV3. We demonstrate that among similar antagonistic interactions in A. majus and So. lycopersicum, RAD-like genes originate from the RAD2 clade, while DIV-like genes originate from distantly related paralogs of the R-R-type lineage.