Trend Analysis of Automobile Collision Amongst 15-19 year olds in Virginia, 2000-2004

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Ndem, Imo F.
hospitalization; mortality; injury; car crash; Virginia; teenage driving; Epidemiology; Medicine and Health Sciences; Public Health
thesis / dissertation description
Purpose. This research study on automobile collision in Virginia amongst fifteen to nineteen (15-19) year olds looked into the trend analysis over a five (5) year period of 2000 to 2004. Trend analysis is usually done for aggregates of all injuries—either intentional or unintentional injuries, or both. The primary objective of this research study was to examine the trend in hospitalization rates and mortality rates for males and females independently. It further looked into the trend, if any, in hospitalization rates, mortality rates, and case-fatality rates, for both males and females combined. The different Tables illustrate the extent and the impact of automobile collision in terms of demographics and characteristics of hospitalizations, types of hospitalizations, hospitalization rates, mortality rates and case-fatality rates among this age group.Methods: An investigation was carried out in a case control manner of 2353 cases using data from the Virginia Department of Health-Division of Injury Prevention & Violence on automobile collision amongst 15-19 year olds, from 2000 to 2004, a (5) five year period. Hospitalization data were obtained from Virginia Health Information, coded in line with International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision (ICD-9); external cause of injury (E)-codes. Mortalityldeath rates and case fatality rates were calculated using U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 for Virginia's population data. Frequency distribution analysis was done with SPSS 14.0, data entry using M.S. Excel, while rate ratio and confidence intervals for hospitalization rates, mortality rates were calculated. Linear trend was analyzed for hospitalization rates, mortality rates and case-fatality rates, using Chi square statistics test for significance. Geographical Information System (GIs) methods were used to display counties in Virginia.Results: Out of 2353 cases of automobile collision in Virginia, amongst 15-19 year olds, from 2000 to 2004, the demographic did not changed much. Males were fairly distributed over the five year period, while automobile collision characteristics showed that 2142 cases (91%) were more likely to be hospitalized on an emergency basis, with males having a higher percentage, fifty-nine (59%) percent, and forty (40%)percent for females. (Table 1 & 2). The hospitalization rates were higher for males than females, with rate ratio (RR>1) greater than one over the five years of study (Table 3). Mortality rates showed increase rates for males, over the five year of study (RR>1.5) (Table 4). Test for linear trend in hospitalization rates (Chi. Sq.=14.127, p-value ≤ 0.001) were significant for both males and females. Mortality rates test for trend were also significant for both males and females. (Chi Sq. = 377.0, p-value ≤ 0.001). Case-fatality rates trend test were significant for both males and females. (Chi sq. = 11.580, p value ≤ 0.001). The trend in hospitalization, mortality and case-fatality rates, showed a decrease over the five year of study.Conclusion: Given the impact of injuries in ,the U.S., mainly automobile collisions, it is socially beneficial to continue research, intervention and prevention programs in this area, particularly directed and targeted to this population - Healthy People 2010 objectives.