Classroom Observation Of Children With Adhd And Their Peers: A Meta-analytic Review

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Kofler, Michael
ADHD; Classroom observation; attention; meta-analysis
thesis / dissertation description
Meta-analysis of 23 between-group direct observation studies of children with ADHD and typically developing peers indicates significant deficiencies in children with ADHD's ability to pay attention in classroom settings. Comparison with 59 single case design studies of children with ADHD suggests generalizability of between-group comparisons. Weighted regression analysis determined that several methodological differences – sample characteristics, diagnostic procedures, and observational coding schema – have significant effects on observed levels of attentive behavior in the classroom. Best case estimation indicates that after accounting for these factors, children with ADHD are on-task approximately 65% of the time compared to 85% for their classroom peers. Children with ADHD were also more variable in their attentive behavior across studies. Implications for conceptual models of ADHD are discussed.