Sex differences in DNA damage produced by the carcinogen 2-acetylaminofluorene in cultured human hepatocytes compared to rat liver and cultured rat hepatocytes.
- Citation data:
Archives of toxicology, ISSN: 1432-0738, Vol: 90, Issue: 2, Page: 427-32
- Publication Year:
- Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics; Environmental Science
Male rats are more susceptible to the induction of liver cancer by the aromatic amine 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) than are females. To assess the basis for this difference and to determine whether sex differences in susceptibility to AAF are present in human liver cells, the DNA reactivity of AAF was measured in livers of male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and in cultured SD rat and human hepatocytes of both sexes. In livers of rats administered oral doses of AAF, the total levels of adducts measured by nucleotide postlabelling at up to 8 weeks were about twofold greater in males than in females. Similarly, the level of AAF-DNA adducts formed in cultured male rat hepatocytes dosed with AAF was about twofold greater than in female rat hepatocytes. Also, the level of DNA repair synthesis was about threefold greater in AAF-dosed cultured male rat hepatocytes compared with female, indicating that the greater adduct levels in males was not due to lesser repair. In contrast, in cultured human hepatocytes of both sexes, AAF produced similar levels of adducts and DNA repair synthesis, which were intermediate between those produced in male and female rat hepatocytes. Thus, the greater susceptibility of male rats to AAF hepatocarcinogenicity is due at least in part to greater bioactivation and formation of AAF-DNA adducts in hepatocytes. Moreover, the data from human hepatocytes suggest that human liver could be less susceptible than male rat liver to the carcinogenic effects of aromatic amine carcinogens of the AAF type.