Iridium-Based Multimetallic Nanoframe@Nanoframe Structure: An Efficient and Robust Electrocatalyst toward Oxygen Evolution Reaction.
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ACS nano, ISSN: 1936-086X, Vol: 11, Issue: 6, Page: 5500-5509
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- Materials Science; Engineering; Physics and Astronomy; electrocatalysis; iridium-based nanocrystal; kinetic control; nanoframe; oxygen evolution reaction; ternary alloy
Nanoframe electrocatalysts have attracted great interest due to their inherently high active surface area per a given mass. Although recent progress has enabled the preparation of single nanoframe structures with a variety of morphologies, more complex nanoframe structures such as a double-layered nanoframe have not yet been realized. Herein, we report a rational synthetic strategy for a structurally robust Ir-based multimetallic double-layered nanoframe (DNF) structure, nanoframe@nanoframe. By leveraging the differing kinetics of dual Ir precursors and dual transition metal (Ni and Cu) precursors, a core-shell-type alloy@alloy structure could be generated in a simple one-step synthesis, which was subsequently transformed into a multimetallic IrNiCu DNF with a rhombic dodecahedral morphology via selective etching. The use of single Ir precursor yielded single nanoframe structures, highlighting the importance of employing dual Ir precursors. In addition, the structure of Ir-based nanocrystals could be further controlled to DNF with octahedral morphology and CuNi@Ir core-shell structures via a simple tuning of experimental factors. The IrNiCu DNF exhibited high electrocatalytic activity for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in acidic media, which is better than Ir/C catalyst. Furthermore, IrNiCu DNF demonstrated excellent durability for OER, which could be attributed to the frame structure that prevents the growth and agglomeration of particles as well as in situ formation of robust rutile IrO phase during prolonged operation.