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- Energy; Materials Science; heteronanomat skeletons; lithium-ion batteries; mechanical ﬂ exibility; polymeric nanoﬁ ber/carbon nanotube; ultrahigh energy density
The ongoing surge in demand for high-energy/flexible rechargeable batteries relentlessly drives technological innovations in cell architecture as well as electrochemically active materials. Here, a new class of all-nanomat lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) based on 1D building element-interweaved heteronanomat skeletons is demonstrated. Among various electrode materials, silicon (Si, for anode) and overlithiated layered oxide (OLO, for cathode) materials are chosen as model systems to explore feasibility of this new cell architecture and achieve unprecedented cell capacity. Nanomat electrodes, which are completely different from conventional slurry-cast electrodes, are fabricated through concurrent electrospinning (for polymeric nanofibers) and electrospraying (for electrode materials/carbon nanotubes (CNTs)). Si (or rambutan-shaped OLO/CNT composite) powders are compactly embedded in the spatially interweaved polymeric nanofiber/CNT heteromat skeletons that play a crucial role in constructing 3D-bicontinuous ion/electron transport pathways and allow for removal of metallic foil current collectors. The nanomat Si anodes and nanomat OLO cathodes are assembled with nanomat AlOseparators, leading to the fabrication of all-nanomat LIB full cells. Driven by the aforementioned structural/chemical uniqueness, the all-nanomat full cell shows exceptional improvement in electrochemical performance (notably, cell-based gravimetric energy density = 479 W h kg) and also mechanical deformability, which lie far beyond those achievable with conventional LIB technologies.