Damage-associated molecular patterns and their pathological relevance in diabetes mellitus.

Citation data:

Ageing research reviews, ISSN: 1872-9649, Vol: 24, Issue: Pt A, Page: 66-76

Publication Year:
2015
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Repository URL:
http://scholarworks.unist.ac.kr/handle/201301/16654
PMID:
26197086
DOI:
10.1016/j.arr.2015.06.004
Author(s):
Shin, Jung Jae; Lee, Eun Kyung; Park, Tae Joo; Kim, Wook
Publisher(s):
Elsevier BV; ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD
Tags:
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology; Neuroscience; Damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP); Diabetes; Inflammasome; Inflammation; Pattern recognition receptor (PRR)
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review description
Diabetes, a group of metabolic and age-related diseases, is a major global health problem, the incidence of which has increased dramatically in recent decades. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a complex, T cell-mediated autoimmune disease characterized by immune cell infiltration and chronic inflammation in the islets of Langerhans. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) resulting from insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. The involvement of inflammatory processes, such as immune cell infiltration, and chronic inflammation in the pathogenesis of diabetes is less well understood in T2DM than in T1DM. However, studies conducted in the past decade have shown a strong link between inflammation and metabolic dysfunction. They have also shown that chronic inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of both T1DM and T2DM. Two immunological factors commonly contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetes: the activation of inflammasomes and the release of proinflammatory cytokines in response to damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein molecular platforms. DAMPs act as endogenous danger signals. Here, we review current research on the function(s) of inflammasomes and DAMPs and discuss their pathological relevance and therapeutic implications in diabetes.