Human exposure to HBCD and TBBPA via indoor dust in Korea: Estimation of external exposure and body burden.
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The Science of the total environment, ISSN: 1879-1026, Vol: 593-594, Page: 779-786
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- Environmental Science; HBCD; TBBPA; Dust; Indoor environment; Human exposure; Korea
Human exposure to brominated flame retardants (BFRs) such as hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) mainly occurs through diet and dust ingestion. In this study, the BFR concentrations in 124 vacuum dust samples of six categories of indoor environments (homes, offices, kindergartens, cars, schools, and public indoor environments) and 32 surface dust samples were investigated. The median ΣHBCD concentrations ranged from 106.30ngg in home dust to 496.13ngg in office dust. The TBBPA concentrations in indoor dust (from 78.87 to 463.81ngg) were among the highest compared to other countries because of the high market demand for this flame retardant in Korea. The TBBPA concentrations in surface dust of living rooms were significantly higher (p<0.05) than sleeping rooms, due to the presence of more electrical equipment in living rooms. The estimated daily intakes (EDI) of ΣHBCD and TBBPA (dust+diet) for toddlers were 6.18ngkgbwd and 2.54ngkgbwd, respectively. In general, the ΣHBCD estimated body burden of Korean adults showed good agreement with the reported ΣHBCD median concentrations in their sera. Since the developmental health effect of exposure to HBCD was categorized as "high hazard" by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the estimated high body burden of ΣHBCD in Korean toddlers (7.91ngg lw) warns us of possible adverse effects on the development of essential systems in their bodies.