Analyzing the effect of slotted foil on radiation pulse profile in a mode locked afterburner X-ray free electron laser

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Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN: 0021-8979, Vol: 121, Issue: 24

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Sandeep Kumar; Min Sup Hur; Moses Chung
Physics and Astronomy
article description
Extremely short X-ray pulses in the attosecond (as) range are important tools for ultrafast dynamics, high resolution microscopy, and nuclear dynamics study. In this paper, we numerically examine the generation of gigawatt (GW) mode-locked (ML) multichromatic X-rays using the parameters of the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL)-X-ray free electron laser (XFEL), the Korean XFEL. In this vein, we analyze the ML-FEL [Thompson and McNeil, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 203901 (2008)] and mode-locked afterburner (MLAB) FEL [Dunning et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 104801 (2013)] schemes on the hard X-ray beamline of the PAL-XFEL. Using the ML scheme, we numerically demonstrate a train of radiation pulses in the hard X-ray (photon energy ∼12.4 keV) with 3.5 GW power and 16 as full-width half maximum (FWHM) pulse duration. On the other hand, using the MLAB scheme, a train of radiation pulses with 3 GW power and 1 as FWHM (900 zs in RMS) pulse duration has been obtained at 12.4 keV photon energy. Both schemes generate broadband, discrete, and coherent spectrum compared to the XFEL's narrowband spectrum. Furthermore, the effect of slotted foil is also studied first time on the MLAB-FEL output. Numerical comparisons show that the temporal structure of the MLAB-FEL output can be improved significantly by the use of the slotted foil. Such short X-ray pulses at XFEL facilities will allow the studies of electron-nuclear and nuclear dynamics in atoms or molecules, and the broadband radiation will substantially improve the efficiency of the experimental techniques such as X-ray crystallography and spectroscopy, paving the way for outstanding progress in biology and material science.