Real space imaging of one-dimensional standing waves: direct evidence for a Luttinger liquid.
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Physical review letters, ISSN: 0031-9007, Vol: 93, Issue: 16, Page: 166403
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- Physics and Astronomy; CARBON NANOTUBES; TUNNELING SPECTROSCOPY; SURFACE; CONDUCTANCE; EXCITATIONS; BEHAVIOR; STATES
Electronic standing waves with two different wavelengths were directly mapped near one end of a single-wall carbon nanotube as a function of the tip position and the sample bias voltage with high-resolution position-resolved scanning tunneling spectroscopy. The observed two standing waves caused by separate spin and charge bosonic excitations are found to constitute direct evidence for a Luttinger liquid. The increased group velocity of the charge excitation, the power-law decay of their amplitudes away from the scattering boundary, and the suppression of the density of states near the Fermi level were also directly observed or calculated from the two different standing waves.