Nano-CNC Machining of Sub-THz Vacuum Electron Devices
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IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, ISSN: 0018-9383, Vol: 63, Issue: 10, Page: 4067-4073
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- Materials Science; Engineering; vacuum electron device (VED); High frequency; micromachining; nano-computer numerical control (CNC); terahertz
Nano-computer numerical control (CNC) machining technology is employed for the fabrication of sub-THz (100-1000 GHz) vacuum electron devices. Submicron feature tolerances and placement accuracy have been achieved and surface roughness of a few tens of nanometers has been demonstrated providing high-quality radio frequency (RF) transmission and reflection parameters on the tested circuit structures. Details of the manufacturing approach are reported for the following devices: W-band sheet beam (SB) klystron, two designs of a 220-GHz SB double-staggered grating traveling wave tube (TWT), 263-GHz SB TWT amplifier for an electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer, 346-GHz SB backward wave oscillator for fusion plasma diagnostics, 346-GHz pencil beam backward wave oscillator, and 270-GHz pencil beam folded waveguide TWT self-driving amplifier. Application of the nano-CNC machining to nanocomposite scandate tungsten cathodes as well as to passive RF components is also discussed.