by Elio click to enlarge Figure 1. A phylogenic tree of the pseudoalteromonads. Source One runs into new names of bacteria all the time...
Violacein: Properties and Production of a Versatile Bacterial Pigment.
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BioMed research international, ISSN: 2314-6141, Vol: 2015, Page: 465056
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- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology; Immunology and Microbiology; CHROMOBACTERIUM-VIOLACEUM; CAENORHABDITIS-ELEGANS; VIOLET PIGMENT; JANTHINOBACTERIUM-LIVIDUM; PSYCHROTROPHIC BACTERIUM; ANTIBIOTIC PRODUCTION; BIOSYNTHETIC-PATHWAY; CHEMICAL DEFENSE; DRUGS VIOLACEIN; CANCER CELLS; Biotechnology
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Violacein-producing bacteria, with their striking purple hues, have undoubtedly piqued the curiosity of scientists since their first discovery. The bisindole violacein is formed by the condensation of two tryptophan molecules through the action of five proteins. The genes required for its production, vioABCDE, and the regulatory mechanisms employed have been studied within a small number of violacein-producing strains. As a compound, violacein is known to have diverse biological activities, including being an anticancer agent and being an antibiotic against Staphylococcus aureus and other Gram-positive pathogens. Identifying the biological roles of this pigmented molecule is of particular interest, and understanding violacein's function and mechanism of action has relevance to those unmasking any of its commercial or therapeutic benefits. Unfortunately, the production of violacein and its related derivatives is not easy and so various groups are also seeking to improve the fermentative yields of violacein through genetic engineering and synthetic biology. This review discusses the recent trends in the research and production of violacein by both natural and genetically modified bacterial strains.