RNA-Seq analysis reveals new evidence for inflammation-related changes in aged kidney.

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Oncotarget, ISSN: 1949-2553, Vol: 7, Issue: 21, Page: 30037-48

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Park, Daeui; Kim, Byoung-Chul; Kim, Chul-Hong; Choi, Yeon Ja; Jeong, Hyoung Oh; Kim, Mi Eun; Lee, Jun Sik; Park, Min Hi; Chung, Ki Wung; Kim, Dae Hyun; Lee, Jaewon; Im, Dong-Soon; Yoon, Seokjoo; Lee, Sunghoon; Yu, Byung Pal; Bhak, Jong; Chung, Hae Young Show More Hide
Medicine; aging; inflammation; RNA-Seq; differentially expressed genes; novel genes; alternative splicing, Gerotarget
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Age-related dysregulated inflammation plays an essential role as a major risk factor underlying the pathophysiological aging process. To better understand how inflammatory processes are related to aging at the molecular level, we sequenced the transcriptome of young and aged rat kidney using RNA-Seq to detect known genes, novel genes, and alternative splicing events that are differentially expressed. By comparing young (6 months of age) and old (25 months of age) rats, we detected 722 up-regulated genes and 111 down-regulated genes. In the aged rats, we found 32 novel genes and 107 alternatively spliced genes. Notably, 6.6% of the up-regulated genes were related to inflammation (P < 2.2 × 10-16, Fisher exact t-test); 15.6% were novel genes with functional protein domains (P = 1.4 × 10-5); and 6.5% were genes showing alternative splicing events (P = 3.3 × 10-4). Based on the results of pathway analysis, we detected the involvement of inflammation-related pathways such as cytokines (P = 4.4 × 10-16), which were found up-regulated in the aged rats. Furthermore, an up-regulated inflammatory gene analysis identified the involvement of transcription factors, such as STAT4, EGR1, and FOSL1, which regulate cancer as well as inflammation in aging processes. Thus, RNA changes in these pathways support their involvement in the pro-inflammatory status during aging. We propose that whole RNA-Seq is a useful tool to identify novel genes and alternative splicing events by documenting broadly implicated inflammation-related genes involved in aging processes.